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Sociology: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
Everything You Need to Know About Functionalist...
The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. It has its origins in the works of Emile Durkheim, who was especially interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable.
What Is Symbolic Interaction Theory?
The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism, is a major framework of sociological theory. This perspective relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction.
What's the Difference Between Deductive and...
In science, there are two ways of arriving at a conclusion: deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. This article explores the differences between the two.
An Overview of Conflict Theory
Conflict theory emphasizes the role of coercion and power in producing social order. This perspective is derived from the works of Karl Marx, who saw society as fragmented into groups that compete for social and economic resources.
Understand the Difference Between Descriptive...
Statistical procedures can be divided into two major categories: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. This article discusses the differences between the two.
Feminist Theory
Feminist theory is one of the major contemporary sociological theories, which analyzes the status of women and men in society with the purpose of using that knowledge to better women's lives.
What Can I Do With A Degree In Sociology?
An overview of career choices for those with a B.A., M.A., or Ph.D. in sociology.
Types Of Sampling Designs
When conducting research, it is almost always impossible to study the entire population that you are interested in. As a result, researchers use samples as a way to gather data. This article provides an overview of the different types and ways of choosing a sample from a population.
Sociological Theories
Sociological theories of the past and present.
Purposive Sample
A purposive sample, also commonly called a judgmental sample, is one that is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The subjects are selected because of some characteristic.
Types of Crimes
A crime is defined as any act that is contrary to legal code or laws. There are many different types of crimes, from crimes against persons to victimless crimes and violent crimes to white collar crimes.
Structural Strain Theory
Robert K. Merton developed the structural strain theory as an extension of the functionalist perspective on deviance. This theory traces the origins of deviance to the tensions that are caused by the gap between cultural goals and the means people have available to achieve those goals.
What Is the Labeling Theory?
Labeling theory is based on the idea that behaviors are deviant only when...
Norms: Folkways, Mores, Taboos, and Laws
Norms are the specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation. There are four basic types of norms that sociologists commonly refer to, each discussed here: folkways, mores, taboos, and laws.
Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity
Race and ethnicity are important concepts in the field of sociology and are ones that are studied a great deal. Race plays a large role in everyday human interactions and sociologists want to study how, why, and what the outcomes are of these interactions.
What Is a Convenience Sample?
A convenience sample is one in which the researcher uses any subjects that are available to participate in the research study. Read about the advantages and disadvantages of this type of sample and see an example.
Interactionist Perspective
The interactionist perspective is one of the major theoretical perspectives...
Sociology of Gender
Looking at gender sociologically reveals the social and cultural dimensions of something that is often defined as biologically fixed. Gender is not biologically fixed at all, but rather is culturally learned and is something that can and often does change over time.
The Sociological Imagination
In 'The Sociological Imagination,' C. Wright Mills aimed to reconcile two different and abstract concepts of social reality – the “individual” and “society.” In doing so, Mills challenged the dominant sociological discourse and critiqued some of the most basic terms and definitions.
George Herbert Mead
Biography of George Herbert Mead, a sociologist who pioneered the development of the symbolic interaction perspective. He is also the founder of pragmatism and one of the founders of social psychology.
Sociology of Social Inequality
Sociologists see society as a stratification system that is based on a hierarchy of power, privilege, and prestige, which leads to patterns of social inequality. Inequality is about who gets what, how they get it, and why they get it and sociologists are interested in why and how these patterns exists.
An Overview Of Quantitative Research Methods
Quantitative research is research that uses numerical analysis. In essence, this approach reduces the data into numbers.
Sociology of Education
Education is a social institution that sociologists are very interested in studying. This includes teaching formal knowledge such as reading, writing, and arithmetic, as well as teaching other things such as morals, values, and ethics. Sociologists want to know how this form of socialization affects and is affected by other social structures, experiences, and outcomes.
What Does Conflict Perspective Mean in Sociology?
Conflict perspective is one of the major theoretical approaches to...
Stratified Sample
A stratified sample is a probability sampling technique in which the researcher divides the entire target population into different subgroups, or strata, and then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata.
Sociological Explanations of Deviant Behavior
There are many different theories on what causes a person to perform deviant behavior. Here you will find some of the major sociological explanations for deviant behavior.
Psychological Explanations Of Deviant Behavior
There are many different theories on what causes a person to perform deviant behavior. Here you will find some of the major psychological explanations for deviant behavior.
Secondary Data Analysis
Secondary data analysis involves the use of data that was collected by someone else for some other purpose. In this case, the researcher poses questions that are addressed through the analysis of a data set that they were not involved in collecting.
Learn about Karl Marx, a Major Founding Figure...
Biography of Karl Marx, a major figure in the founding of sociology. Marx is best known for his socio-political theory of Marxism and his book 'The Communist Manifesto.'
Biological Explanations Of Deviant Behavior
There are many different theories on what causes a person to perform deviant behavior. Here you will find some of the major biological explanations for deviance and crime.
How Important Was Emile Durkheim?
Best Known For: A founding figure in the field of sociology "Father of sociology" Credited with making
The Study Of Suicide
Emile Durkheim's study of suicide was a groundbreaking sociological study because in it, he discovered a number of important sociological findings. First, he argued that suicide was caused by social factors instead of individual. Second, he emphasized the role of social structure in producing deviance. Third, he pointed out the importance of people's social attachments to society. Finally, he elaborated the view that deviance provides the basis for social cohesion.
The McDonaldization of Society
In 'The McDonaldization of Society,' author George Ritzer takes the central elements of Max Weber’s work and expands and updates them, producing an analysis of the impact of structural change on human interaction and identity.
Max Weber
Best Known For: A founding figure of the field of sociology Thesis of the "Protestant Ethic" Ideas on
Social Exchange Theory
Social exchange theory interprets society as a series of interactions that are based on estimates of rewards and punishments.
The Purposes Of Research
Social research serves many purposes. Three of the most common and useful purposes, however, are exploration, description, and explanation. Many studies can and often do have more than one of these purposes, however each have different implications for other aspects of research design.
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life is a book that was published in 1959, written by sociologist Erving Goffman. In it, he uses the imagery of theater in order to portray the importance of human and social action and interaction. He refers to this as the dramaturgical model of social life.
Sociology Of Deviance And Crime
The sociology of deviance and crime examines cultural norms, how they change over time, how they are enforced, and what happens to individuals and societies when norms are broken. Deviance and social norms vary among societies, communities, and times, and often sociologists are interested in why these differences exist and how these differences impact the individuals and groups in those areas.
Social Structure
Social structure is the organized pattern of social relationships and...
What Is Theoretical Perspective?
A theoretical perspective is a set of assumptions about reality that...
Positivism
Positivism is a way of thinking developed by Auguste Comte and is based...
Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory is a theory that attempts to explain socialization and its effect of the development of the self. It emphasizes the societal context of socialization rather than the individual mind and postulates that an individual’s identity is not the product of the unconscious, but instead is the result of modeling oneself in response to the expectations of others.
Social Control
Social control is a concept that refers to the ways in which people’s...
Labeling Theory
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Snowball Sample
A snowball sample is a non-probability sampling technique that is appropriate to use in research when the members of a population are difficult to locate. Read more about snowball sampling and see an example.
Modernization Theory
Modernization theory emerged in the 1950s as an explanation of how...
Systematic Sample
In a systematic sample, the elements of the population are put into a list and then every k-th element in the list is chosen (systematically) for inclusion in the sample.
17 Profiles of the Most Famous Sociologists in...
Learn more about sociologists by browsing through this list of some of the most famous thinkers in sociology history.
An Overview Of Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research, also called field research, typically involves fieldwork in which the researcher observes and records behavior and events in their natural setting. The researcher physically goes to the people, setting, or site in order to observe the subject as it normally and naturally occurs or behaves.
Types Of Scales
A scale is a type of composite measure that is composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. There are several different types of scales. In this article, we’ll look at four commonly used scales in social science research and how they are constructed.
Sociology Of Religion
In one form or another, religion is found in all known human societies. Even the earliest societies on record show clear traces of religious symbols and ceremonies. Sociologists study religion as both a belief system and a social institution, examining things such as how religious institutions are organized and what influence religion has on other social institutions.
Critical Theory
Critical theory is a type of social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole. It aims to dig beneath the surface of social life and uncover the assumptions that keep us from a full and true understanding of how the world works.
Quota Sample
A quota sample a type of non-probability sample in which the researcher selects people according to some fixed quota. Learn more about quota samples and read an example.
Social Mobility
Social mobility is a person’s movement over time from one class to...
Levels of Measurement
Level of measurement refers to the way that a variable is measured. There are four main levels of measurement that variables can have: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
Confidence Intervals And Confidence Levels
A confidence interval is a measure of estimation. It is an estimated range of values that is likely to include the population parameter being calculated. A confidence level is a measure of how accurate the confidence interval is.
Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled...
Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity is a book written by Erving Goffman in 1963 about the idea of stigma and what it is like to be a stigmatized person. It is a look into the world of persons who society does not consider “normal.”
Rational Choice Theory
Economics plays a huge role in human behavior. That is, people are often motivated by money and the possibility of making a profit, calculating the likely costs and benefits of any action before deciding what to do. This way of thinking is called rational choice theory.
What Is Sociology?
Describes what sociology is, its origins, current approaches to the study of sociology, and a brief overview of the major topics of sociology.
Auguste Comte
Biography of Auguste Comte, a sociologist best known for coining the term 'sociology.' Comte is also known as the founder of positivism and for his emphasis on systematic observation and social order.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of Variance, or ANOVA for short, is a statistical test that looks for significant differences between means.
Nature Vs. Nurture
The nature/nurture debate is a longstanding controversy about the...
The Division of Labor in Society
The Division of Labor in Society is a book written, originally in French, by Emile Durkheim in 1893. It was Durkheim’s first major published work and the one in which he introduced the concept of anomie, or the breakdown of the influence of social norms on individuals within a society.
Popular Culture
Popular culture is the accumulated store of cultural products such as...
Talcott Parsons
Biography of Talcott Parsons, a sociologist best known for laying the foundation for what would become the modern functionalist perspective. He is regarded by many as the twentieth century's most influential American sociologist.
Role Conflict
Role conflict occurs when people are confronted with incompatible role...
When Should I Use a Cluster Sample?
Cluster sampling may be used when it is either impossible or impractical to compile an exhaustive list of the elements that make up the target population. Read about the different types of cluster samples how they are drawn.
The History Behind Sociology
Learn about the history of sociology, how it came to be an academic discipline, and its evolution over the past century.
The Communist Manifesto
'The Communist Manifesto' is a book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 and has since been recognized as one of the world’s most influential political manuscripts.
Designing A Research Project
Undertaking a research project can be a bit daunting if you’ve never done one before or if you are embarking on an entirely new subject or research method. Where should you start, and what are the proper steps involved? This article will help guide you through the process.
Cultural Relativism
Cultural relativism is a concept that refers to the fact that what is...
Lambda and Gamma
Lambda and gamma are two measures of association that are commonly used in social science statistics and research. Lambda is used for nominal variables while gamma is used for ordinal variables.
Content Analysis
Researchers use content analysis to learn about a society by analyzing cultural artifacts such as newspapers, magazines, television programs, or music.
Robert K. Merton
Best Known For: Theories of deviance Developing the concepts of "self-fulfilling prophecy" and "role
Correlation Analysis
Correlation analysis is useful for determining the direction and strength of a relationship between two variables.
Demographic Transition
Demographic transition is a model used to represent the transition from...
Participant Observation
Participant observation is one common way for sociologists to collect data and study society in which he or she actually becomes a part of the group they are studying.
Erving Goffman
Biography of Erving Goffman, a sociologist known for his role in shaping the symbolic interaction perspective as well as developing the dramaturgical perspective.
Variance and Standard Deviation
Variance and standard deviation are two closely related measures of variation that you will hear a lot in studies, journals, or statistics class. They are two basic and fundamental concepts in statistics that must be understood in order to understand most other statistics concepts or procedures.
Ascribed Status
Ascribed status is a position in a social system that is beyond an individual’s...
Cultural Capital
Cultural capital is the ideas and knowledge that people draw upon as...
Achieved Status
Also known as acquired status, an achieved status is a position in a...
Units Of Analysis
One important idea in a research project is the unit of analysis. The unit of analysis is the major entity that you are analyzing in your study. It is the ‘what’ or ‘who’ that is being studied. This article explores the common units of analysis used in social science research.
Functionalist Perspective
The functionalist perspective can be traced back to Emile Durkheim and...
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A self-fulfilling prophecy, described by Robert Merton, is a cultural...
Herbert Spencer
Biography of Herbert Spencer, a British sociologist who was one of the first to think of social life in terms of social systems. He saw societies as organisms that progressed through a process of evolution similar to that experienced by living species. Spencer also played an important role in the development of the functionalist perspective.
Ethnomethodology
Ethnomethodology is a theoretical approach in sociology based on the belief that you can discover the normal social order of a society by disrupting it. Ethnomethodologists deliberately disrupt social norms to see how people respond and how they try to restore social order.
C. Wright Mills
Biography of C. Wright Mills, a sociologist best known for his controversial critiques of both contemporary society and sociological practice.
Total Institution
A total institution, a concept developed by Erving Goffman, is an isolated...
Power
Power is a key sociological concept with several different meanings...
Dependency Theory
Dependency theory is used to explain the failure of nonindustrialized countries...
Random Sample
The simple random sample is the basic sampling method assumed in statistical methods and computations. Read about the different kinds of random samples and examples of each, including how to use a random number table.
Hidden Curriculum
Hidden curriculum is a concept that describes the often unarticulated...
Normal Distribution
A normal distribution is a theoretical idea that is based on theory rather than real data. Normal distributions are typically the goal and the ideal in research and data and something that every researcher strives for.
Cultural Lag
Cultural lag is a term to describe what happens in a social system when...
Sociology Of The Family
The sociology of family examines things such as marriage, divorce, child rearing, and domestic abuse. Specifically, sociologists study how these aspects of the family are defined in different cultures and times and how they affect individuals and institutions.
Sociology Of Health And Illness
Sociologists who study health and illness focus on the social effects of, and societal attitudes towards, illnesses, diseases, disabilities, and the aging process. This is not to be confused with medical sociology, which focuses on medical institutions such as hospitals, clinics, and physician offices as well as the interactions among physicians.
Meritocracy
A meritocracy is a social system in which people’s success in life depends...
Frustration-Aggression Theory
The frustration-aggression theory argues that social movements occur...
Formal Organization
A formal organization is a social system organized around specific goals...
Class Consciousness And False Consciousness
According to Karl Marx, class conflict and struggle occur because of the...
Master Status
A master status is a social position that tends to be among the most...
How To Get Started On A Literature Review
Starting the process of conducting and writing a literature can be overwhelming. Here I will provide you with a few tips on how to get started that will hopefully make the process a little less daunting.
Charles Horton Cooley
Biography of Charles Horton Cooley, a sociologist known for his idea of 'The Looking Glass Self' as well as for developing the concepts of primary and secondary relationships.
Reference Group
A reference group is a collection of people that we use as a...
Resource Mobilization Theory
Resource mobilization theory is used in the study of social movements...
Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between variables...
Secularization
: Secularization is a process of social change through which the public influence of religion and religious
Feminism
Radical feminists believe that gender inequality is a result of the collective efforts of men to dominate, control, and exploit women.
Alienation
Alienation is a concept that refers to both a psychological condition found...
Anthony Giddens
Biography of Anthony Giddens, a British sociologist best known for his theory of structuration, his holistic view of modern societies, and the development of his political philosophy called the Third Way. Giddens is a prominent contributor to the field of sociology with 34 published books in at least 29 languages.
Resocialization
Resocialization is the process by which existing social roles are...
The Protestant Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism
'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism' is a book written by sociologist and economist Max Weber in 1904-1905. It is a discussion of Weber’s various religious ideas and economics in which he argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism. It is often considered a founding text in economic sociology and sociology in general.
Ideographic And Nomothetic
Ideographic and nomothetic methods represent two different approaches to...
Dramaturgical Perspective
The dramaturgical perspective was developed primarily by Erving Goffman...
Presenting Data in Graphic Form
Graphs tell a story with visuals rather than in words or numbers and can help readers understand the substance of the findings rather than the technical details behind the numbers. Learn about the different types of graphs used in social science research.
Controlled Experiments
A controlled experiment is a highly focused way of collecting data and is especially useful for determining patterns of cause and effect.
Ritualism
Ritualism is a concept discussed by Robert Merton in his Theory...
Linear Regression Analysis
Linear regression is a statistical technique that is used to learn more about the relationship between an independent (predictor) variable and one or more dependent (criterion) variables.
Indexes And Scales
If you are conducting a social science research project, chances are good that you will encounter indexes and scales. While these two types of measures do have some characteristics in common, they are two different concepts and have several distinguishing features.
In-Depth Interviews
Interviewing is a method of qualitative research in which the researcher asks open-ended questions orally and records the respondent’s answers. Interviewing is typically done face-to-face, but can also be done via telephone.
Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By In America
Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By In America is a book by Barbara Ehrenreich based on her ethnographic research on low-wage jobs in America. Inspired in part by the rhetoric surrounding welfare reform at the time, she decided to immerse herself into the world of low-wage earning Americans.
Backstage And Frontstage
In Erving Goffman’s Dramaturgical Perspective on Social Interaction, frontstage...
Mores
Mores are a set of norms that define the most fundamental ideas about...
Surveys: Questionnaires, Interviews, and...
Surveys are the most commonly used tool in sociological research, whether in the form of a questionnaire, interview, or telephone poll. Learn more about surveys here.
Convergence Theory
Convergence theory has its roots in the functionalist perspective, which...
Moral Panic
Moral panic is an extreme social response to the belief that the...
Exchange Theory
Exchange theory includes two approaches to social interaction and...
Ethical Considerations In Sociological Research
The American Sociological Association's Code of Ethics sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct. Here is an overview of the five principles included in the Code of Ethics.
Aggregate
This term has two meanings in sociology. In the first sense, an aggregate...
Medicalization
Medicalization is a social process through which a human experience or...
Social Oppression
Social oppression is a concept that describes a relationship of dominance...
Ideal Type
The ideal type is an abstract model created by Max Weber that, when...
Interpretive Sociology
Interpretive sociology is a theoretical perspective based on the idea...
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of central tendency are numbers that describe what is average or typical of the distribution of data. There are three main measures of central tendency: mean, median, and mode.
Major Sociological Studies And Publications
Discover some of the major sociological works that helped define and shape the field of sociology.
Age Structure
The age structure of a population is the distribution of people among various...
Constructing a Questionnaire
Questionnaires are used a lot in social science research and knowing how to construct a good questionnaire can be an important and practical skill to have. Here you will find tips on good questionnaire formatting, item ordering, questionnaire instructions, question wording, and more.
Analyzing Quantitative Data
There are many different software programs designed for use with quantitative data. This article will take a look at the programs that are most commonly used among social science researchers.
Base And Superstructure
Base and superstructure are two concepts in Karl Marx’s view of human...
Sociology Of Sports
Sociology of sports, also referred to as sports sociology, is the study of the relationship between sports and society. This is a brief overview of some of the topics examined under the sociology of sports.
Sociolinguistics
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Pilot Study
A pilot study is a research project that is conducted on a limited scale...
Sanction
A sanction is a reward or punishment that a norm associates with a behavior...
Full-Text Sociology Journals
An overview of sociology journals that offer access to a selection of full-text articles online.
Scapegoat
A scapegoat is person or group that is forced to take the blame for...
Political Process Theory
Political process theory is used in the study of social movements and is...
Intervening Variable
In statistics, an intervening variable is one that occurs between the...
Collective Behavior
Collective behavior is a type of social behavior that occurs in crowds or...
Game Theory
Game theory is a theory of social interaction, which attempts to explain the interaction people have with one another. As the name of the theory suggests, game theory sees human interaction as just that: a game.

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