Sociological research studies, journal articles, and textbooks often contain statistical terms and findings. Knowing these basic terms can help you understand the material you are reading. These statistical terms are also often found in newspaper stories, online articles, and in everyday conversations. By familiarizing yourself with this list of terms and their definitions, you will have a better understanding of what is going on in the world around you.

### 1. Chi-square

Chi-square is a statistical technique used to test whether a set of sample results is simply a result of chance occurrence or if it reflects something real going on in the population.

### 2. Cluster Analysis

Cluster analysis is a statistical technique used to identify how various units (people, groups, or societies), can be grouped together because of characteristics they have in common.

### 3. Coefficient Of Alienation

In statistical analyses such as correlation, regression, or path analysis, the coefficient of alienation is a statistic that indicates the degree to which one or more independent variables fail to explain variation in a dependent variable.

### 4. Coefficient Of Determination

In statistical analyses such as correlation, regression, or path analysis, the coefficient of determination is a statistic that indicates the proportion of variation in the dependent variable that is explained by one or more independent variables.

### 5. Continuous Variable

A continuous variable is a variable that can, within a given range, take on an infinite number of possible values.

### 6. Control Variable

A control variable is a variable that is held constant in a research analysis. The use of control variables is generally done to answer four basic kinds of questions...

### 7. Correlation

Correlation is a term that refers to the strength of a relationship between two variables.

### 8. Covariance

Covariance is a statistical quantity that measures the degree to which two variables vary together in relation to each other.

### 9. Cross-Sectional Data

Cross-sectional data is information that is gathered at one point in time to reflect social conditions

### 10. Crosstabulation

A cross-tabulation (or cross-tab for short) is a display of data that shows how many cases in each category of one variable are divided among the categories of one or more additional variables.